Lawsonomy Volume One




The shape of man and his ability to move about depends upon his bones and muscles.

In fact it is to keep the bones and muscles in good order and serviceable condition that the stomach, heart and lungs are largely needed.

Without a frame of bones for support man could not stand erect. Without bones he would have to lay flat upon the surface of the Earth and wriggle about. Without muscles he could not even wriggle.

The frame or skeleton of man consists of two hundred bones of various sizes and shapes. This skeleton is principally supported by a backbone which is made up of a number of small bones called vertebrae.

The skull set at the top of the backbone is one of the most important parts of the body as it encases the brain and organs of the senses.

The heart and lungs are protected by the ribs which surround them from the backbone to the breastbone or sternum.

The bones of the arms and legs are the longest and strongest of the body and must bear the heaviest strains.

All of the bones of man although of different sizes and shapes are constructed so as to permit the minimum weight for the maximum strength.

The bones of the arms and legs are of a light spongy nature at the ends and hollow throughout their length.

Bones are composed of two distinct kinds of materials—organic and mineral—which combination forms a structure that is strong and hard.

Organic matter furnishes substances that give to the bones life, strength, and cohesiveness, and mineral matter furnishes substances that contribute hardness and solidity.

If a bone is burned with fire the excessive heat dissolves the organic structure and the substances pass away in gases and the mineral matter remains as ashes. So when a man is cremated all that is left of him are his mineral remains.

The bones of a child at birth, contain no mineral matter at all and are soft and pliable. As the child grows, mineral matter is gradually absorbed until the bones become stiff and hard.

As the bones of a child are more flexible than those of the adult, great care should be taken in the development of them, that they will be afforded every chance to grow large, strong and shapely. This can be accomplished by the regulation of exercise, nourishment and rest.

Clothing has a tendency to compress the bones and more especially tight shoes, heavy hats, belts and garters. Bone and muscle need room for expansion and the less tight fitting clothing worn the better.

There are parts of the body that need a substance more flexible than bone and tougher than muscle and this substance is called cartilage.

Between each vertebra of the backbone are cushions of cartilage which allow the backbone to stretch and twist and also absorb the shock that the body would get if the bones touched each other, especially the jars from jumping or running.

The ribs are united to the breastbone by small pieces of cartilage and the outer ear is composed of cartilage covered with skin. There are also pieces of cartilage around the larynx.

But with all of the bones, muscles and cartilage of the body still man could not move himself about if it were not for the joints. An accident to the joints causes stiffness or lameness.

There are two kinds of joints—the ball-and-socket joint and the hinge joint. A hinge joint permits back and forth movement only—the ball-and-socket joint allows movement in all directions. At the elbows is found a hinge joint and at the shoulders a ball-and-socket joint.

The ends of the bones forming the hinge joint are large, rounded and smooth and are covered with a layer of soft cartilage and adjusted to allow easy movement.

The bones of the points are surrounded by a thin membrane which produces a liquid that moistens the ends of the bone and this prevents friction.

The ends of the bones are fastened together by ligaments and muscles to keep them in position and afford movement to them.

From the ends of the muscles the tendons pass down over the joints and are attached to the bones below.

Covering the bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments is the skin which forms a wall of protection for them all against outside influences.

At the shoulder, the upper end of the arm bone is rounded like a ball and fits into a hollow cavity in the shoulder blade. While this is bound together similar to the elbow, a loose leathery sack is also fastened to the shoulder blade and passing over the joint at all sides is attached to the upper end of the arm bone, making a complete covering for the joint.

A bone pulled out of place in its socket is a dislocation; a strain in one or more of the ligaments is a sprain.

The power to move the body or parts thereof come through the muscles. The joints, ligaments and tendons by themselves can produce no movement.

The lean meat of man consists of muscles which are attached to his bones by cords or tendons. These tendons are of various lengths and a number of them at the ankle run from the leg to the toes, or at the wrist from the arm to the fingers.

The power of the grip from a handshake comes principally through the muscles of the arm, although the tendons, ligaments and bones must be equal to the strain put upon them through the contraction of the muscles.

Muscles are made up of innumerable microscopic fibers, running lengthwise and fastened to each other by minute connecting bands.

Countless blood capillaries circulate among these muscle fibers supplying nourishment and fuel that creates the Power to move them.

The proteins of digested food carried by the blood help to make new muscle tissue to replace that which is constantly being worn out and the sugars and fat and some protein furnish the fuel for power.

Connected with each muscle fiber are numerous points of Suction and there are also numerous minute power plants in which the digested fuel foods are mixed with the oxygen brought from the lungs by the red corpuscles causing explosions, numbers of which acting simultaneously create sufficient internal Pressure to move the muscles.

The heat generated from these explosions goes to warm the body.

It is the contraction of a muscle that moves the different parts of the body and by concerted efforts moves the whole body from place to place.

Each muscle is opposed by a counteracting muscle which pulls the part moved back into place again after each exertion. When one muscle contracts, the other one is lengthened.

The muscles can be made to act either singly or collectively, and when a man runs, a hundred or more muscles must work together in unison.

There are more than two hundred muscles of different shapes and sizes in the body. The largest number of these muscles are fastened to at least two bones, and allow movements in any direction that the joints will permit.

The strength of muscles depend upon the way they are exercised. The more they are used the stronger they become.

It is not good for the system, however, to overdevelop one set of muscles and neglect others. The body will be more efficient if all muscles are given moderate exercise.

In fact, the muscles should never be developed beyond that strength which can be maintained throughout the entire life of man, for it is the disuse of portions of the body once developed that starts decomposition that finally ends in death.

When muscles are not used they become weaker and smaller and in time lose all of their strength.

It is the life of man to keep all muscles exercised to a healthy condition and the death of him to neglect doing so.

The infirmities of age are the penalties for transgressions of youth.

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